Staying up-to-date on research findings along with pursuing my own research areas is strong a passion of mine. I believe that research plays an important role in the field. The empirical nature of research allows for better treatment solutions.

Please see below for a collection of my published papers (click on any of the titles for the paper’s abstract):

Lack of awareness regarding OCD symptomatology among clinical, counseling and school psychology doctoral students

Authors: Glazier, K. & McGinn, L.K. (2015 )

Publication: Journal of Depression and Anxiety, 4(3), doi:10.4190/2167-1044.1000190.

Background: Mental and medical health professionals misidentify obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) at alarmingly high rates. This study assessed psychology doctoral students’ awareness of OCD.

Method: Doctoral students from APA-accredited clinical, counseling, or school psychology programs in the Greater New York Area participated. The study consisted of three assessment points; diagnostic impressions for five distinct vignettes were obtained at each of assessment. An educational OCD video intervention was presented to both study conditions.

Results: Eighty-two students, across seven doctoral programs participated. Participants reported less awareness (not at all aware or not very aware) of the non-contamination and non-symmetry obsessions (17.1%-36.0%) compared to contamination or symmetry obsessions (1.3%-3.9%). Participants were also more likely to misdiagnose the noncontamination and non-symmetry as compared to the contamination and symmetry OCD cases (17.7-33.3% vs. 0.0-6.3%, respectively). After exposure to the video intervention, the OCD misidentification rate dropped from 18.5% to 5.4%.

Conclusion: A widespread lack of awareness and misidentification of OCD symptoms beyond contamination and symmetry obsessions exists. The video intervention was effective in reducing OCD misidentification rates. Graduate students in the mental health field could benefit from targeted training to accurately diagnose OCD.

What does leadership really look like?

Authors: Leonte, S. & Glazier, K. (2015 )

Publication: Salem Health: Adolescent Health & Wellness.

Abstract: What makes a great leader? Leadership is comprised of basic human traits that any individual can embrace and develop. Understanding the basic components of leadership and then implementing the areas in your own unique and individualized manner is an essential aspect of being a great leader. Everyone is different and therefore leadership traits work in ways that reflect a person’s uniqueness and individuality.

Interpersonal skills and technology.

Authors: Leonte, S. & Glazier, K. (2015 )

Publication: Salem Health: Adolescent Health & Wellness.

Abstract: In today’s world, interpersonal skills do not just relate to in-person interactions. Strong interpersonal skills now also relate to an individual’s ability to effectively communicate with people through technology-based settings such as emails, texts and social media sites. While there are some similarities regarding how interpersonal skills present within face-to-face versus remote settings there are also important differences. Building one’s interpersonal skills within the technology-medium is essential in today’s era, which embraces technology-based methods for communication.

Learning to love and not fear public speaking!

Authors: Glazier, K. & Leonte, S. (2015 )

Publication: Salem Health: Adolescent Health & Wellness.

Abstract: Public speaking permeates almost all aspects of our lives. However, despite its significance, the fear it stirs in people leads many to try and avoid it; for some, at all costs! Through their avoidance people ultimately serve to only short change themselves. By choosing to confront the fear elicited from the mere thought of public speaking, over time it can be overcome. Exposure work is a strong ally in conquering the fear associated with public speaking.

Stigma and shame as barriers to treatment for obsessive-compulsive and related disorders.

Authors: Glazier, K., Wetterneck, C., Singh, S., & Williams, M. (2015 )

Publication: Journal of Depression and Anxiety, 4(3), doi:10.4191/2167- 1044.1000191.

Abstract: Limited research has examined barriers to treatment for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and no known studies have addressed barriers to treatment for trichotillomania (TTM) or skin picking disorder (SPD). Additionally, existing literature does not examine differences in barriers to treatment based on the content and severity of OCD obsessions. Previous literature has shown that shame and stigma may be an important reason for avoiding psychological treatment. This study examined the potential role of stigma and shame surrounding attitudes about treatment initiation for individuals with OCD, TTM, or SPD. Participants were recruited from study links posted on professional mental health websites. Included in the analyses were those who met diagnostic screening criteria for OCD, TTM, or SPD (n=587). Across disorders, the most frequently endorsed barrier was being “ashamed of my problems.” Ethnic minorities endorsed more stigma/shame connected with family disapproval. Individuals with OCD were significantly more likely to report a fear of involuntary hospitalization. Content and severity of OCD obsessions impacted stigma/shame barriers, as those with high levels of unacceptable/taboo thoughts were at greater risk for experiencing stigma/shame. Implications of findings are discussed.

Half of obsessive-compulsive disorder cases misdiagnosed: Vignette-based survey of primary care physicians.

Authors: Glazier, K., Swing, M., & McGinn, L.K. (2015 )

Publication: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 76(6), e761-e767.

Objective: Medical settings are the primary mode of care for mental health problems; physicians’ abilities with regard to psychiatric diagnosis and treatment recommendations are therefore essential. While misdiagnosis can occur across all psychiatric conditions, the heterogeneous nature of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) may make this condition at an elevated risk for misidentification. The study’s aim was to assess primary care physicians’ ability to identify OCD.

Methods:The study was cross-sectional in design. An online, vignette-based survey was emailed to 1,172 physicians from 5 major medical hospitals in the Greater New York Area. The email included a link to the survey, which consisted of 1 of 8 randomized OCD vignettes; each vignette focused on one of the following common manifestations of OCD: obsessions regarding: aggression, contamination, fear of saying things, homosexuality, pedophilia, religion, somatic concerns or symmetry. Participants provided diagnostic impressions and treatment recommendations for the individual described in the vignette. Data collection took place from December 10, 2012 through January 18, 2013.

Results: Two hundred eight physicians completed the survey. The overall misidentification rate was 50.5%. Vignette type was the strongest predictor of a correct OCD response [Wald chi-square (7) = 40.58; p < .0001]. Misidentification rates by vignette were: homosexuality (84.6%), aggression (80.0%), saying certain things (73.9%), pedophilia (70.8%), somatic concerns (70.8%), religion (37.5%), contamination (32.3%), and symmetry (3.70%). Participants who misidentified the OCD vignette were less likely to recommend a first-line empirically supported treatment (CBT = 46.7%, SSRI = 8.6%) compared to participants who correctly identified the OCD vignette (CBT = 66.0%, SSRI = 35.0%). Antipsychotic recommendation rates were elevated among incorrect versus correct responders (12.4% vs. 1.9%).

Conclusion: Elevated OCD misdiagnosis rates and the impact of incorrect diagnoses on treatment recommendations highlight the need for greater training regarding OCD symptomatology and empirically supported treatments.

Romantic Addiction.

Authors: Glazier, K. & McGinn, K. Lata. (2015 )

Publication: Psychology and Behavioral Health, 1611-1613.

Abstract: Heartbreak due to the dissolution of a romantic relationship and withdrawal from an addictive substance share many similar psychological and neurobiological symptoms. Increasing awareness regarding the similarities across both conditions and conceptualizing the process of getting over a romantic relationship from an addiction framework may be helpful from a treatment/recovery standpoint. Using an addiction model to understand the common thoughts, emotions, and behaviors individuals experiencing heartbreak have can promote consideration of strategies that have been shown to be effective in treating substance use conditions.

Identical symptomatology but different diagnostic impression: Treatment implications of an OCD versus schizophrenia diagnosis.

Authors: Hunter, N., Glazier, K., McGinn, L.K. (2015 )

Publication: Psychosis: Psychological, Social, and Integrative Approaches, DOI:10.1080/17522439.2015.1044462.

Background: Individuals with identical symptomatology may receive conflicting diagnoses, potentially leading to different treatments. The aims of this study were to assess diagnostic impressions and treatment recommendations for obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) versus schizophrenia-spectrum disorders (SSD).

Methods: Participants (N = 82) were recruited from accredited doctoral programs. All participants were randomized to assess diagnostic impressions and treatment recommendations for 15 vignettes. These were measured across three separate testing sessions.

Results: Large discrepancies in treatment recommendations were found. All participants who selected OCD recommended psychotherapy while only 15.4% of participants who identified the same vignette as schizophrenia suggested psychotherapy. More than half the participants who reported schizophrenia selected antipsychotics as the primary response; medication was not a primary recommendation when the vignette was identified as OCD.

Conclusion: Symptoms conceptualized as SSDs were recommended medication; those same symptoms conceptualized as OCD were recommended psychotherapy. Greater awareness regarding the efficacy of psychosocial treatments for SSDs is needed.

What does the term “specialist” really mean?

Authors: Glazier, K. (2014 )

Publication: Comprehensive Psychiatry, 55(8), e48-e48.

Background: In the mental health field, the term “specialist” is ambiguous and unregulated. However, the term specialist is commonly utilized by mental health professionals.

Objective: To determine the average number of areas of specialty and theoretical orientations endorsed by mental health providers.

Method: A random sample of 146 clinicians’ profiles listed under Psychology Today’s “therapist finder” function was reviewed. Profiles were selected from the three most populous and three least populous U.S. cities, listed on the 2009 United States Census Bureau’s 1000 most populous cities. Information regarding the professionals’ gender, title, degree, location, number/types of areas of specialty and number/types of theoretical orientations was obtained.

Results: The average numbers of self-reported areas of specialty and theoretical orientations among the 146 mental health professionals’ profiles reviewed were 19.8 (SD = 9.4) and 4.9 (SD = 2.4), respectively. No significant correlations between the mental health providers’ demographic information and number of areas or specialties or theoretical orientations were found.

Conclusion: The preliminary data suggest that mental health providers identify as specializing in numerous clinical areas and base their practice on multiple theoretical orientations. The term specialist needs to be more concretely defined and certification programs to ensure expertise in self-reported areas of specialty and orientations should be mandated.

Misidentification of OCD by mental health professionals.

Authors: Glazier, K., Calixte, R., Rothschild, R., & Pinto, A. (2013 )

Publication: Annals of Clinical Psychiatry, 25(3), 201-209.

Background: More than a decade may pass between the onset of obses­sive-compulsive disorder (OCD) symptoms and initiation of treatment. One explanation may be health care professionals’ limited awareness of OCD symptom presentations. We assessed mental health care providers’ ability to identify taboo thoughts as manifestations of OCD.

Methods: A random sample of 2,550 American Psychological Association members were asked to give diagnostic impressions based on 1 of 5 OCD vignettes: 4 about taboo thoughts and 1 about contamination obsessions.

Results: Three-hundred sixty (14.1%) providers completed the survey. The overall misidentification rate across all vignettes was 38.9%. Rates of incorrect (non-OCD) responses were significantly higher for the taboo thoughts vignettes (obsessions about homosexuality, 77.0%; sexual obses­sions about children, 42.9%; aggressive obsessions, 31.5%; and religious obsessions, 28.8%) vs the contamination obsessions vignette (15.8%).

Conclusions: Mental health professionals commonly misidentify OCD symptom presentations, particularly sexual obsessions, highlighting a need for education and training.

Hypnosis: There’s an App for that. A systematic review of hypnosis apps.

Authors: Sucala, M., Schnur, J.B., Glazier, K., Miller, S.J., Green, J.P., & Montgomery, G.H. (2013 )

Publication: International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 61(4), 463-474.

Abstract: This study systematically reviews the hypnosis apps available via iTunes that were compatible with iPhone or iPad. Of 1455 apps identified on iTunes, 407 met inclusion criteria and were further reviewed. Most common hypnosis app targets were weight loss (23%), boosting self-esteem (20%), and relaxation/stress reduction (19%); 83% of apps delivered hypnosis via audio track, and 37% allowed tailoring. Less than 14% of apps reported disclaimers. None of the apps reported having been tested for efficacy, and none reported being evidence based. Although apps have the potential to enhance hypnosis delivery, it seems as though technology has raced ahead of the supporting science. Recommendations from clinical researchers and policy makers are needed to inform responsible hypnosis app development and use.

Temptation Experiences during a Smoking Cessation Attempt: A Mixed Method Analysis.

Authors: Glazier, K., Victor, E., Johnson, J., & O’Connell, K. (2013 )

Publication: Addiction, Research & Theory, 21(1), 83-90.

Objectives: The purpose of this study was to gain an insider’s perspective regarding the overall experiences of 61 participants who attempted to quit smoking and to determine whether particular factors were associated with lapses.

Design: A 14-day longitudinal randomized design.

Methods: Participants used palm-top computers and tape-recorders to report on smoking temptation episodes. All urges experienced from the onset of the participant’s quit day and the succeeding 14 days were to be recorded.

Results: All narratives were transcribed and underwent qualitative descriptive coding. Pearson correlation analyses found the negative support for cessation and low commitment to cessation variables were significantly associated with increased lapses. Primary trigger codes found participants with habit related urges lapsed significantly less while participants with emotion-triggered urges lapsed significantly more.

Conclusions: Tailored treatments for specific subsets of smokers may help increase cessation success rates.

A Unique Interactive Cognitive Behavioral Training Program for Front Line Cancer Care Professionals.

Authors: Clark, K., Greene, P., DuHamel,K., Loscalzo, M., Grant, M., Glazier, K., & Redd, W. (2012 )

Publication: Journal of Cancer Education, DOI: 10.1007/s13187-012-0425-1.

Abstract: For between one third and one half of all cancer survivors, disturbances in mood and cognition do not end with the conclusion of treatment. Recognizing this problem, the Institute of Medicine emphasized in its 2008 report, the importance of addressing psychosocial issues, such as distress, to providing quality cancer care. The National Cancer Institute (NCI) has recognized that there is a severe lack of trained professionals who can address these needs. In response to this need, an interactive training program was developed and implemented to teach frontline cancer care professionals Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) skills. This training includes a structured curriculum, centered around a 3-day training workshop that includes didactic discussion, small group interactive sessions, role playing, post course support, and follow-up evaluation. Four of the planned eight workshops have been conducted thus far indicate successful recruitment and implementation of a unique training model related to the CBT skills learned.

From clutter to modern art: A Chinese artist’s perspective on hoarding behaviors.

Authors: Alcon, J., Glazier, K., Rodriguez, C. (2011 )

Publication: American Journal of Psychiatry, 168(12), 1248.

Abstract: For the 2009 exhibit Waste Not, an artistic collaboration between well-known contemporary Chinese artist Song Dong and his mother, Zhao Xiangyuan, Mr. Song carefully arrayed the entire contents of his cluttered childhood home in the atrium of the Museum of Modern Art in New York. This massive art installation was made up of over 10,000 worn, broken, and unused objects that would seemingly appear to have little or no value to others. The objects had been collected and preserved by Ms. Zhao (Mr. Song’s mother). First created in Beijing in 2005, Waste Not has since traveled to South Korea, Germany, and England, as well as the United States.

Tobacco induced diseases: An emphasis on mental health conditions that may result from cigarette use.

Authors: Glazier, K. (2010 )

Publication: The New School Psychology Bulletin, 8(1), 57-62.

Abstract: Besides the widely known risks to physical health, smoking cigarettes appears to pose mental health risks as well. However, research and public awareness campaigns typically focus on the relationship between smoking and physical health issues. Research has also paid significant attention to smoking as a self-medicating behavior. However, little attention has been given to research focused on cigarette smoking as a risk factor for the onset of psychological disorders. In this literature review, cigarette smoking is examined in its role as a catalyst for psychiatric illnesses. Increased awareness in this area may be particularly beneficial for mental health providers, healthcare practitioners, smokers, and individuals contemplating whether to smoke.

Effects of Munchausen Syndrome by Proxy on the Victim.

Authors: Glazier, K. (2009 )

Publication: Graduate Student Journal of Psychology; 11, 70-74.

Abstract: The perpetrators of Munchausen Syndrome by Proxy (MSBP) produce symptoms that often result in multiple doctor visits, hospitalizations, incorrect diagnoses, and unnecessary procedures for the victim. Immediate physical harm exists for all suffers of MSBP. However, growing research suggests that there are lasting adverse physical, psychological, and social effects for individual victims of MSBP. The mortality rate and risk of further abuse for children who are returned home after they receive a diagnosis of MSBP suggests greater consideration should be given before allowing a child to continue living with the perpetrator. Studies show that MSBP is not culturally dependent. The difficulty in diagnosing cases of MSBP indicates the prevalence rate may be underestimated.